Introduction to nanopore sensing
Electronics for nanopore sensing
The MinION™ device: a miniaturised sensing system
The PromethION™ system
The GridION™ system
Workflow versatility: no fixed run time
Nanopore sensing: informatics
Automatic optimisation of system performance
Analytes and applications: DNA, RNA, proteins
- DNA: An introduction to nanopore sequencing
- DNA: strand sequencing
- DNA sequencing: applications
- Protein analysis
Fields of use
The need for a new protein-analysis technology
Of the approximately 100,000 proteins commonly found in mammalian tissue, fewer than 5% have a reliable and affordable assay available. The development of reliable methods for analysing proteins is currently slow and complex.
When identifying and verifying a new assay for a protein, mass spectrometry is likely to be the dominant technology. When progressing research into a protein to determine whether it is a useful biomarker for disease, or has other interesting functions, the researcher is likely to develop an immunoassay – again a long and complex process. In addition, many researchers use gene expression as a surrogate for protein analysis.
GridION™ technology for protein analysis
A direct electronic method of protein-analysis like nanopore sensing can provide benefits for researchers wishing to discover and validate new proteins. The same technology is designed to provide a diagnostic device with high specificity and sensitivity.
This protein-analysis technique is compatible with the Oxford Nanopore GridION system.
The research below from Oxford Nanopore founder Professor Hagan Bayley's group illustrates the principle of this method, describing nanopore-ligand-protein interactions and the modification of a protein nanopore for the analysis of a protein kinase.
Stochastic detection of monovalent and bivalent protein-ligand interactions. Angewandte Chemie International Edition 43 (7), 842–846 (2004)
A genetically encoded pore for the stochastic detection of a protein kinase. ChemBioChem 7 (12), 1923–1927 (2006)