Introduction to nanopore sensing
The GridION™ system
The MinION™ device: a miniaturised sensing system
Analytes and applications: DNA, RNA, proteins
- DNA: An introduction to nanopore sequencing
- DNA: strand sequencing
- DNA sequencing: applications
- Protein analysis
- Small molecules
Fields of use
The need for a new protein-analysis technology
Of the approximately 100,000 proteins commonly found in mammalian tissue, fewer than 5% have a reliable and affordable assay available. The development of reliable methods for analysing proteins is currently slow and complex.
When identifying and verifying a new assay for a protein, mass spectrometry is likely to be the dominant technology. When progressing research into a protein to determine whether it is a useful biomarker for disease, or has other interesting functions, the researcher is likely to develop an immunoassay – again a long and complex process. In addition, many researchers use gene expression as a surrogate for protein analysis.
GridION™ technology for protein analysis
A direct electronic method of protein-analysis like nanopore sensing can provide benefits for researchers wishing to discover and validate new proteins. The same technology is designed to provide a diagnostic device with high specificity and sensitivity.
This protein analysis technique is compatible with the Oxford Nanopore GridION system.
The research below from Oxford Nanopore founder Professor Hagan Bayley's group illustrates the principle of this method, describing nanopore-ligand-protein interactions and the modification of a protein nanopore for the analysis of a protein kinase.
Stochastic detection of monovalent and bivalent protein-ligand interactions. Angewandte Chemie International Edition 43 (7), 842–846 (2004)
A genetically encoded pore for the stochastic detection of a protein kinase. ChemBioChem 7 (12), 1923–1927 (2006)