Introduction to nanopore sensing
Electronics for nanopore sensing
The MinION™ device: a miniaturised sensing system
The PromethION™ system
The GridION™ system
- Movie: An introduction to the GridION™ system
- Single-use cartridge
- GridION™ workflow
Workflow versatility: no fixed run time
Nanopore sensing: informatics
Automatic optimisation of system performance
Analytes and applications: DNA, RNA, proteins
Fields of use
The Oxford Nanopore proprietary nanopore-based sensing chemistries can be operated on the GridION™ system, an electronics-based platform. This enables multiple nanopores to be measured simultaneously and data to be sensed, processed and analysed in real time.
A node can be employed as a single desktop instrument, or scaled up in a similar way to computing installations.
As a desktop instrument for the individual researcher, it can write data to the network or to a locally attached disc (directly through a USB or through a network) and work in a small lab. GridION does not require a dedicated server.
Each node is a network device. Multiple nodes can be aggregated together into larger co-operating units or clusters, communicating with each other in a peer-to-peer fashion over the user's network. The system is designed to interface or even co-locate, with standard or high-performance IT infrastructure. Workflow overheads and total costs, including IT, scale linearly with the GridION system.
graphic: a single node (left) may be used as a desktop device, or installed in conjunction with other nodes that communicate with each other through a network (centre, right).
A single node as a desktop
|Nodes may be clustered through a network for larger throughput installation||Each GridION node operates with a single disposable cartridge|
The GridION™ single molecule analysis system is scalable; the basic unit is an instrument called a node. Each node is a self-contained electronic reader that operates as a network device.
Low power and space requirements
A single GridION node has a small footprint, with a 2 u height* and fitting standard 19" computing racks. At less than 50 W total power consumption, and less than 90 BTUs of heat output, each node has the energy footprint of a domestic light bulb, requiring no additional power, temperature control, or structural modifications to a building for installation.
*A 'u' is a standard measurement for the height of rack-mountable instrumentation, and is typically used in computing where individual server blades may be 1 u, 2 u, etc. A standard computing rack may be 19" or sometimes 23". 1 u = 1.75" or 44.45 mm.
Each node contains custom, high-performance electronics that allow the high-frequency measurement of ionic current through individual nanopores – many tens of thousands of recordings per second.
Data is transferred from the sensor array chip in the cartridge, via a custom Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC), to the node at hundreds of megabytes per second. In situ, the data is reduced to sensing events of the appropriate type for the application, e.g. base-calls for DNA sequencing or binding counts for protein analysis.
GridION™ nodes have been designed for easy installation, upgrade and maintenance. A user can install the node in a benchtop skin or computing rack and a single node needs only a standard power supply and network connection.
This plug-and-play approach means that the customer will be able to install their own GridION nodes and receive replacements for faulty nodes rather than relying on installation engineers and long servicing cycles. Nodes are built to run diagnostics and automated pre-emptive fault sensing, allowing replacement nodes to be supplied to users before an instrument fault occurs.